Use mathematical models to represent and understand quantitative relationships
“High school students should be able to develop
models by drawing on their knowledge of many classes of functions—to decide,
for instance, whether a situation would best be modeled with a linear function
or a quadratic function—and be able to draw conclusions about the situation by
analyzing the model. Using computer-based laboratories (devices that gather
data, such as the speed or distance of an object, and transmit them directly to
a computer so that graphs, tables, and equations can be generated), students
can get reliable numerical data quickly from physical experiments. This technology
allows them to build models in a wide range of interesting situations”
Formulate questions that can be addressed with data and collect, organize, and display relevant
data to answer them
“In grades 9–12 students should gain a deep
understanding of the issues entailed in drawing conclusions in light of
variability. They will learn more-sophisticated ways to collect and analyze
data and draw conclusions from data in order to answer questions or make
informed decisions in workplace and everyday situations. They should learn to
ask questions that will help them evaluate the quality of surveys,
observational studies, and controlled experiments. They can use their expanding
repertoire of algebraic functions, especially linear functions, to model and
analyze data, with increasing understanding of what it means for a model to fit
data well. In addition, students should begin to understand and use correlation
in conjunction with residuals and visual displays to analyze associations
between two variables. They should become knowledgeable, analytical, thoughtful
consumers of the information and data generated by others.
As students analyze data in grades 9–12, the natural
link between statistics and algebra can be developed further. Students'
understandings of graphs and functions can also be applied in work with data.”
Create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas;
Select, apply, and translate among mathematical representations to solve problems;
Use representations to model and interpret physical, social, and mathematical phenomena.
“High school students should be able to create and
interpret models of more-complex phenomena, drawn from a wider range of
contexts, by identifying essential features of a situation and by finding
representations that capture mathematical relationships among those features.
They should recognize, for example, that phenomena with periodic features often
are best modeled by trigonometric functions and that population growth tends to
be exponential, or logistic. They will learn to describe some real-world
phenomena with iterative and recursive representations.”
Maryland: Core Learning goals
Goal 1 Functions and Algebra
The student will demonstrate the
ability to investigate, interpret, and communicate solutions to mathematical
and real-world problems using patterns, functions, and algebra.
The student will analyze a wide
variety of patterns and functional relationships using the language of
mathematics and appropriate technology.
The student will recognize, describe, and/or extend patterns and functional relationships that
are expressed numerically, algebraically, and/or geometrically.
The student will represent patterns and/or functional
relationships in a table, as a graph, and/or by mathematical expression.
The student will model and interpret real-world
situations using the language of mathematics and appropriate technology.
The student will describe how the graphical model of a
non-linear function represents a given problem and will estimate the solution.
Maryland Content Standards
Knowledge of algebra, patterns and functions
Students will algebraically represent, model, analyze,
and solve mathematical and real-world problems involving patterns and functional
Process of communication
Students will demonstrate their ability to organize and
consolidate their mathematical thinking in order to analyze and use
information, and will present ideas with words, symbols, visual displays, and technology.
Process of connections
Students will demonstrate their ability to relate and
apply mathematics within the discipline, to other content areas, and to daily