ANOTHER LOOK AT DATA (HISTOGRAMS AND BAR GRAPHS)
ESTIMATED TIME TO COMPLETE: 75 minutes
MODULE OBJECTIVES:
Students will construct and distinguish among the appropriate uses of bar graphs and histograms through activities with Interactive software
CONCEPT(S) LEARNED IN THIS MODULE:
Appropriate uses of bar graphs and histograms
STANDARDS ADDRESSED BY UNIT MODULES:
 Praxis(0016):
 Curriculum components  Appropriate materials and technology
 Problem solving
 Investigate and understand content
 Formulate problems for everyday situations
 Verify and interpret results
 Build student confidence
 Solve problems that are developmentally appropriate
 Probability and Statistics
 Counting
 Organizing
 Representing
 Interpreting data
 Handheld calculators and computers  Computer based interactive tool used in problem solving and concept development
 Classroom management and motivation
 Problem solving
 Experimentation
 Small group instruction
 Whole group construction
 Efficient instruction
 Analysis of students’ work  Use of rubrics
 Use of manipulatives and developmentally appropriate materials  Variety and reliability
 Contentspecific pedagogy  Theories necessary for implementing sound representations of numeric and algebraic concepts
 Science as inquiry  Development of ability to ask questions, investigate, observe, construct explanations and communicate results
 Praxis(0069):
 Organize data into an appropriate presentation  Use of computer based interactive tool for organizing data
 Read and analyze data presented in various forms
 Solve problems involving average
 Draw conclusions from data
 MSPAP K8:
 Environmental Science  Students will use scientific skills and process to explain the interactions of environmental factors (living and nonliving) and analyze their impact from a local to a global perspective.
 Life Science  Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the dynamic nature of living things, their interactions, and the results from the interactions that occur over time.
 Algebra, Patterns, and Functions  Students will algebraically represent, model, analyze, and solve mathematical and realworld problems involving patterns and functional relationships.
 Statistics and Probability  Students will collect, organize, display, analyze and interpret data to make decisions and predictions and will use experimental methods and theoretical reasoning to determine probabilities to make predictions.
 Number Relationships and Computation  Students will describe, represent and apply numbers and their relationships and will estimate and compute using mental strategies and paper/pencil.
 Processes of Mathematics  Students will use reasoning to solve problems in mathematics, be able to communicate the processes used and the solution(s) while making connections within mathematics, to other disciplines, and to the real world.
TECHNOLOGY  ENHANCED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES UTILIZED IN THIS MODULE:
Computer based estimation, analysis and visualization
Component 
Brief Description of Module Activities 
Student Grouping 
Materials/Technology 
Engagement 
Have students use unifix cubes to construct a 3D bar graph display of surface area of oceans of the world.

Small Group 
Unifix Cubes, data sheets 
Exploration 
Use Histogram tool in Interactivate at www.shodor.org site to distinguish the differences between bar graphs and histograms 
Individual or Small Group 
Computer with web access, computer projection device 
Explanation 
Teacher directed activity on changing scales on histogram to affect visual interpretation 
Whole class 
Computer with web access, computer projection device 
Extension 
Students will independently explore the other data sets in Histogram tool to gain insight into visual manipulation of data. 
Individual 
Computer with web access 
Evaluation 
Students would find sets of environmentally related data and construct a bar graph & two histograms (different intervals) 
Individual 
Computer with web access 
EXPECTED MODULE OUTCOMES:
Students will be able to:
 Construct a bar graph and a histogram
 Demonstrate and explain the effect of changing scale and range on bar graphs and histograms
 Demonstrate when it is appropriate to use a bar graph and a histogram to display data
PERFORMANCE BASED ASSESSMENT OF MODULE OUTCOMES:
Students will construct three displays  one bar graph and two histograms (different intervals)  and complete a compare and contrast chart of the information shown. A threecircle Venn Diagram is recommended for chart.
SCORING RUBRIC:

Analysis 
Displays 
2 
 Correct displays are constructed
 Intervals are appropriate
 At least four statements entered in compare/contrast chart

 Each has title and labels
 Each is neatly constructed

1 
 Correct displays are constructed
 Scale is not appropriate or less than four statements in chart

 Each has title and labels
 Each is neatly constructed

0 
 Incorrect display or two or less observation statements conclusion

 Missing title or labels
 Scale is not uniform

TEACHER NOTES:
 Engagement Activity:
The following data applies to surface area of the four main oceans (in square miles): Pacific 63,800,000, Atlantic 31,830,000, Indian 28,360,000, Arctic 5,440,000. Teacher should allow students to determine the appropriate scale to represent the data and ask comparative questions.
 Exploration and Explanation:
Using the histogram Interactivate tool and the discussion questions found in Interactivate , the teacher should conduct class wide discussion to demonstrate the effect of changes of scale and range. Use of classroom projector to display histogram and familiarize students with the tool is recommend.
 Evaluation:
Data sets may be obtained at:
 Scoring Rubric for Culminating Activity:

Abstract(s) 
Presentation 
2 
 Meets all criteria (measures of central tendency, histogram, box and whisker plot) and explains the contribution of each

 Typed
 Displays from article are included
 Source of article is given

1 
 Contains two of the three criteria

 Meets all criteria above.

0 
 Contains only one of the criteria

 Above criteria are incomplete

Unit Description
Module 1 2 3 4